Would depend entirely on climate and the amount of sun the spot is getting.
I've heard jerusalem artichokes are indeed tenacious in terms of keeping it self spreading through it's bulbs underground.
I've also found tomatoes TOO easy to sprout (in the sense that I always get too much plants to pot even from one tomato), but they do need a certain amount of water regularly, and you can't put them outside unless it's regularly over 20 degrees C.
And another tip: don't use potato peels as a compost in the bottom of your pots, because you'll have small potato plants shooting up constantly
(I have in fact a potato growing in my window sill in between some self-grown pythaya cacti)
Outside in my garden they did less well but that had to do with the amount of sun their spots are getting; too much trees hanging over them. Still they're easy, just not super-pretty imo.
In terms of other plants: see what grows as weed in your area, and experiment with some similar plants. EG cultivated poppys would do well around here I think since wild poppys grow abundantly.